Currently, the exemptions for federal gift tax, estate tax, and generation-skipping transfer (GST) tax are at historic highs, and the gift, estate, and GST tax rates are at historic lows. But, in 2013, the exemptions are scheduled to substantially decrease, and the tax rates are scheduled to substantially increase. This raises the question of whether 2012 might be a good time to make large gifts that take advantage of the current exemptions while they are still available.
Looking into the future
When you transfer your property during your lifetime or at your death, your transfers may be subject to federal gift, estate, and GST tax. (Your transfers may also be subject to state taxes.) Currently, there is a basic exclusion amount (sometimes referred to as an exemption) that protects up to $5,120,000 from gift tax and estate tax, a $5,120,000 GST tax exemption, and a top tax rate of 35%. Unless new legislation is enacted, in 2013 the gift tax and estate tax exemption will decrease to $1,000,000, the GST tax exemption will decrease to $1,000,000 (as indexed), and the top tax rate will increase to 55%.
No one knows what the future holds for these taxes, but there is a lot of speculation about what Congress might do. Among the possible scenarios, tax rates could increase and exemptions decrease, tax rates could decrease and exemptions increase, or current tax rates and exemptions could be extended. The question then arises: “Should large gifts be made in 2012 to take advantage of the large $5,120,000 exemption while it is still available?”
To answer that question, you should generally consider the following: the size of your estate and the rate at which it can be expected to grow (or decrease), whether you can afford to make large gifts, what the future of the transfer taxes might be, and whether “claw back” would apply in future years.
Claw back refers to a situation where the benefit of certain tax provisions is essentially recaptured at a later time due to changes in tax law. There is some split in opinion as to whether claw back applies to the estate tax. A couple of examples will illustrate the difference.
Example: Assume the gift and estate tax change as currently scheduled in 2013 and claw back applies. Assume you make a taxable gift of $5 million in 2012 that is fully protected by your gift tax exemption and you have a taxable estate of $5 million when you die in 2013. Estate tax, after reduction by the unified credit but not the state death tax credit, is $4,795,000. The result is essentially the same as if you had not made the taxable gift in 2012 and your taxable estate is $10 million in 2013.
Example: Assume the same facts as above, but with no claw back. Estate tax, after reduction by the unified credit but not the state death tax credit, would be $2,750,000. So, the federal estate tax is $2,045,000 lower if there is no claw back.
Guidelines for large gifts in 2012
If you expect that you can keep your estate down to around $1 million ($2 million total for both spouses if you are married) using annual exclusion gifts (generally, up to $13,000 per recipient per year; effectively, $26,000 for gifts by married couples) and qualified transfers exclusion gifts for medical and educational expenses, there may be no advantage to making taxable gifts in 2012. If you have a larger estate, you may wish to consider making taxable gifts sheltered by exemptions in 2012, depending on your evaluation of how the guidelines here apply to your particular circumstances.
If you make taxable gifts sheltered by the gift and estate tax exemption in 2012, and the gift and estate tax rates later increase, the exemptions decrease, and there is no claw back, you may save gift and estate taxes by making the gifts in 2012. Even if there is claw back, your gift and estate taxes will probably be no worse than if you hadn’t made the gifts. And, if the gift and estate tax rates later decrease or stay the same and the exemptions increase or stay the same, your gift and estate taxes will probably be no worse than if you hadn’t made the gifts.
If you make generation-skipping transfers sheltered by the GST tax exemption in 2012, and the GST tax rate later increases and the exemption decreases, you may save GST tax by making the GST in 2012. Even if the GST tax rate later decreases or stays the same and the exemption increases or stays the same, your GST tax will probably be no worse than if you hadn’t made the GST in 2012.
In each of these scenarios, it has been assumed that values do not appreciate. If the property transferred by gift increases in value after the gift, there may also be transfer tax savings from removing the appreciation from the transfer tax system.
You’ll want to consider how these guidelines for large gifts in 2012 might apply to your specific circumstances. An estate planning professional can help you evaluate them.
While it might seem obvious, gifts should only be made if you can afford to part with the property.
In general, it is usually preferable to make as many gifts as possible using the annual exclusion and the qualified transfers exclusion for medical and educational expenses before making taxable gifts that use up the gift and estate tax exemption. Annual exclusion and qualified transfer exclusion gifts do not use up the gift and estate tax exemption.
When you make a gift of property, your income tax basis in the property (generally, what you paid for the property, with some up and down adjustments) is generally carried over to the person who receives the gift. When you transfer property at your death, the basis of the property is usually “stepped up” (or “stepped down”) to fair market value at the time of your death.
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